• Radio Wave Propagation - ground wave, sky wave, layers, skip zone, skip distance, ionospheric absorption, fading, phase shift, solar activity, sunspots, critical and maximum useable frequencies, VHF and UHF, sporadic-E, aurora. (PDF file, opens in a separate window)
  • Solar Activity & HF Propagation - solar radiation, solar flux, sunspots and solar cycle, K and A indices explained. (PDF file, opens in a separate window)

  • Sailing the Ionosphere - How the ionosphere affects radio propagation and how it can be used to the benefit of radio amateurs. (PDF file, opens in a separate window)

  • Propagation Video - Short flash presentation of the propagation aspects (after watching this presentation, go back to home page to read the real solar activity data from the chart on the right. (exe file, right click and save to disk)
Click the picture to see the beacons details
Notice: Most of the resources on this page are hosted on remote servers. Most of them are copyrighted and may require a permission from the owner in order to use them other than for personal use. The majority of the materials comes from the Toronto Emergency Communications (EmComm) Group and is offered free of charge to all Radio Clubs, ARES Groups, and individuals in the interest of public safety and community service. Unless stated otherwise, this web page serves as a links database to the most valuable internet resources for ham radio enthusiasts.
click the map for frequencies and transmission times